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Polyester is a specific material that used extensively in clothing.
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Anno 2018

The artificial silk rug stays cool to the touch

 The cocoon is spun by the silk moth caterpillar of a single silk fiber that can be up to several thousand feet in length. It's not that artificial silk is intrinsically evil, it's just that the whole point of using artificial silk in a rug is to save the cost of real silk. If the sample is real silk, the burning sample should ball to a black, crispy ash, and the smell should be of burning hair (you're burning protein, the same stuff your hair is made of). If the material was cellulose (rayon), the ash should be soft and chalky, and the smell should be like burning paper (most paper is made of cellulose). Viscouse rayon was the first man-made fiber. Sometimes cotton is calendered by being passed between heated rollers. in. This artificial silk is almost invariably ivory in color, and is made of mercerized cotton.

With all these artificial fibers around, how can you identify a rug woven with natural silk?For example handmade area rugs,silk rugs,persian rugs,oriental rugs,wool rugs 
First of all, pay attention to whatever clues the dealer--or the rug--gives you. DuPont first called the material "artificial silk", and formed a company (The DuPont Fibersilk Company) to manufacture it. You've got to be a little careful with this test to avoid smelling the smoke from the match (and to avoid igniting yourself or the rug dealer's shop). This is not a problem if you know that the rug you are considering is made of artificial silk, but sometimes rug dealers neglect to pass on this information! The problem happens most often with just a few rug types sold in tourist markets in Turkey and India (and sometimes in Pakistan). The viscose is extruded through tiny holes into a chemical bath that produces long filaments which can be spun into thread and yarn. These wool pile rugs often have "silk touch," meaning that there is artificial silk inlay in the pile (often outlining part of the design).), and often have cotton fringe. You still might be looking at a rug made of artificial silk. Good quality real silk rugs always have real silk fringe.
Mercerized cotton
A ripening cotton boll can contain as many as 5,000 separate cotton fibers, each fiber growing from a tiny seed and formed as a hollow cylindrical sheath of as many as thirty layers of almost pure cellulose. Add 8-10 g glycerine, then caustic soda (sodium hydroxide: NaOH) until a clear solution is obtained. Artificial silk rugs often have only medium weaves (less than 250 knots per sq. In Pakistan we often see rugs called jaldars., and sometimes less than 150 knots per in.
Tests for Silk
OK, you're looking at a nicely woven, nicely patterned, closely clipped "silk" rug with what appears to be real silk fringe. An artificial silk Kayseri is a flos Kayseri ( a yun Kayseri has a wool pile).
Rub it! It is sometimes claimed that you can tell real silk from artificial silk by vigorously rubbing the pile with your open palm. The effect is to swell the fiber and make its surface much more reflective, thus dramatically increasing its luster (and also its tensile strength). Most often this means mercerized cotton; sometimes it means a manufactured fiber like rayon or a blend of chemically altered and/or manufactured fibers. No guarantee; your mileage may vary. Clip off a small piece of the fringe, or pull a knot out of the rug from the back (why should the owner object?). Other artificial fibers would follow quickly: acetate (also derived from cellulose) in 1924, nylon, (commonly, adipic acid reacted with hexamethylene diamine) in 1939, acrylic (from acrylonitrile, a petrochemical) in 1950, polyester in 1953, and triacetate in 1954.
Rayon
Like cotton, rayon is made of almost pure celulose, but rather than being grown, rayon is produced by first dissolving cellulose (obtained from cotton or woodpulp) to produce a thick yellow liquid called viscose. The effect is to increase the luster and sheen of the fiber still more. After the chemical treatment, cotton yarn is often singed to remove whatever small amount of fuzz remains on the surface of the fibers.

 The real silk rug feels warm, the artificial silk rug stays cool to the touch.We don't mean to be alarmist, but we sometimes see "silk rugs" that are made of something other than genuine, natural silk. Cotton fiber is mercerized by being stretched under controlled tension at room temperature while being treated Anti-UV polyester yarn with a 21 solution of caustic soda (NaOH). For many years Kashmir in northern India has been the major source for both real and artificial silk Indian rugs. Here are three field tests that might help you distinguish real from fake. Artificial silk rugs in India are often blatantly sold as real silk, complete with certificates of authenticity and written guarantees. Look carefully at the "silk" rug: it should be tightly woven (with more than 200 knots per sq. In Turkey, a real silk Kayseri is an ipek Kayseri: ipek is "silk" in Turkish.
Artificial Silk
Artificial silk is everything billed as silk that doesn't come from the silkworm cocoon.
Dissolve it! The most accurate test is one that chemically differentiates protein from cellulose or petrochemicals. Burn it. One such test: at room temperature, mix a solution of 16 g copper sulfate (CuSO4) in 150 cc of water., and often with 500 or more knots), intricately detailed, closely clipped, and it should have real silk fringe that is clearly an extension of the rug's structure, not sewn on or sewn into the ends of the rug. In 1920, DuPont bought from the French the technology for making viscose rayon. For instance, we have seen many artificial silk Kayseri rugs (and some Hereke rugs), both Turkish types.
Real Silk
Real silk is produced as the cocoon covering of the silkworm, the pupal form of the Asian or mulberry silk moth, bombyx mori. It is not nice when this cheaper, artificial silk rug is misrepresented and sold for the price of a real silk rugs.
Indian rug dealers are seldom as delicately circumspect as some of their Turkish counterparts. We sometimes think we have felt this difference. Of course, it helps to have a real silk rug with you so that you can compare a known quantity!
Burn it! This test is at least good theatre, and actually can be helpful. Look at the ash and smell the smoke. However it is treated, cotton remains cellulose: C6H10O5. This solution will dissolve a small sample of natural silk, but will leave cotton, rayon, and nylon unchanged. To harvest the silk, completed cocoons are boiled or heated to kill the silkworms, then laboriously unwound into single fibers which are plied together and spun into thread or silk yarn. in. The dealer might be accurately describing the piece to you as a flos rug, but by not explaining the difference between flos and ipek, he lets you jump to the intended assumption, and you unwittingly buy an artificial silk rug.
venerdì, 22 giu 2018 Ore. 11.29
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